Introduction to IPv6 Addresses: How to Use and How to Explore the Network (Part 2)
It is recommended to start acquaintance with the first part: https://miloserdov.org/?p=3727
How to open IPv6 in a web browser
To use an IPv6 address in a URL, simply place it in square brackets: https://[2604:a880:800:c1::2ae:d001]/
If you need to specify a port, then it is put through a colon outside the square brackets. If you need to specify the page and parameters, then they follow the slash after the port number, or after the address, for example:
How to open IPv6 in cURL
To open IPv6 in cURL, the address must be placed in square brackets, examples of commands:
curl [2604:a880:800:c1::2ae:d001] curl https://[2604:a880:800:c1::2ae:d001] -k curl https://[2a02:6b8:a::a] -H 'Host: yandex.ru' -k
How to ping IPv6 addresses
The ping program can work with IPv6 addresses. It is enough to specify the address, and it does not need to be placed in square brackets:
Instead of the IP address, you can specify the host name. But if the host has both IP and IPv6 addresses, then IPv4 addresses will be pinged. In order for the program to ping the IPv6 address, you need to use the -6 option:
ping -6 suip.biz
Online service for ping sites and IP with IPv6 support: https://w-e-b.site/?act=ping
How to find out which organization IPv6 address belongs to. WHOIS IPv6 Addresses
The whois program supports IPv6 addresses and you can use it to get information such as:
- organization to which IPv6 is assigned
- IPv6 address range
- mailing address of the organization that owns IPv6
- Autonomous system to which IPv6 belongs
- contact details (phone and email) of the owner of the IPv6 address
Using whois to get information about IPv6 is very simple – just specify the address (putting it in square brackets is not required):
IPv6-enabled whois service: https://w-e-b.site/?act=whois
How to look at the ARP table in IPv6. Show neighbors in IPv6
To view the MAC addresses of devices in the local IPv6 network, run the command:
ip -6 neigh show
How to traceroute IPv6
To perform IPv6 traceroute, it is necessary that the computer from which you are tracerouting the IPv6 network, as well as the target host, have IPv6 addresses, that is, that they are connected to the IPv6 network.
To traceroutetraceroute, specify the IPv6 address of the remote host:
For best results, it is recommended to try different methods of tracerouting, see the article ‘Trace route tools and methods’ for details.
The traceroute program looks for hostnames for IP addresses, but for IPv6 addresses it is usually not possible to find hostnames, so the program simply duplicates the same addresses, which clutters the output and makes it hard to read. To prevent this from happening, as well as to significantly speed up the tracing process, it is recommended to use the -n option:
traceroute -n 2a02:f680:1:1100::3d60
As a remote site, you can specify the site name. If you want tracerouting to IPv6 of this site, specify the -6 option, for example:
traceroute -6 suip.biz
Online traceroute service with IPv6 support: https://w-e-b.site/?act=traceroute
How to configure your system to work with DNS over IPv6
Even if your computer is connected to an IPv6 network, then most likely the fourth version of IP is listed as the DNS server. If you want DNS queries also to be made using IPv6, then in addition to the existing records, add the IPv6 addresses of DNS servers.
For Google DNS, these are the addresses:
You can check if DNS responses over IPv6 are coming normally:
dig suip.biz @2001:4860:4860::8888 AAAA
If everything is fine, then on Linux, to enable DNS via IPv6 at the beginning of the /etc/resolv.conf file:
sudo gedit /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 2001:4860:4860::8888 nameserver 2001:4860:4860::8844
After that, DNS queries will be sent via the IPv6 protocol.
In addition to being “trendy and modern”, IPv6 has built-in IPsec support:
IPsec (short for IP Security) is a set of protocols for securing data transmitted over the IP Internet Protocol. Allows authentication, integrity checking and/or encryption of IP packets. IPsec also includes protocols for secure key exchange on the Internet. It is mainly used for organizing VPN connections .
Security in IPv6 is implemented using IPsec, which is required for this version of the protocol. Unlike SSL and TLS, IPsec will allow you to encrypt any data (including UDP) without the need for any support from the application software. And DNS queries (by default) are transmitted using the UDP protocol. That is, in theory, the transition from IP to IPv6 should improve security for DNS queries.
How to calculate how many IPv6 addresses in a subnet
Before moving on to examples of scanning IPv6 subnets, let's learn how to calculate how many IPv6 addresses are in a given IPv6 range.
This is not without meaning, we turn to the quote from Wikipedia:
“It is sometimes claimed that a new protocol can provide up to 5 · 10 28 addresses for every inhabitant of the Earth. Such a large address space was introduced for the sake of hierarchical addresses (this simplifies routing). However, an increased address space will make NAT optional. The classic use of IPv6 (over a /64 network per client; only unicast addressing is used) will make it possible to use more than 300 million IP addresses per inhabitant of the Earth”.
By the way, it's pretty easy to calculate how many IPv6 addresses are in total:
2128 = 3.402823669 × 1038
This is an unrealistically many!
And in the subnet you are interested in may be much more addresses than you expect…
You can calculate the number of IPv6 in a subnet using the formula:
Suppose you are given an IPv6 network: 2604:A880::/32, how many IPv6 addresses are in this network?
2(128-32) = 7.922816251 × 1028
I don’t know what this number is, but it’s definitely a lot of addresses. It’s pointless to start scanning such networks – scanning will never end.
How to scan IPv6 and IPv6 ranges
Nmap supports IPv6 addresses and can scan IPv6 ranges, although there are some limitations: not all types of notations that are available for regular IPs are supported.
Suppose I want to scan my local IPv6 network to which my address 2403:6200:8862:ea24::2/128 belongs (subnet mask /128 means only one address). Although this is not quite the correct expression, since the address 2403:6200:8862:ea24::2 is global. At the same time, IPv6 address 2403:6200:8862:ea24:40b3:e3e3:fdf8:bcf8/64 was assigned to my network interface. If you look at information about this address:
it turns out that it belongs to the range 2403:6200::/32. The range with a network length of /32 is too large to scan. The subnet /64 is also too big. Therefore, I will scan the /120 subnet, in which all in all:
2(128-120) = 256 addresses.
That is, as a target, I choose 2403:6200:8862:ea24::2/120. Nmap will not complain that the non-network bits set (unlike, by the way, tcpdump, which does not accept a filter with this assumption). But more correct, of course, would be to indicate the goal as 2403:6200:8862:ea24::/120:
sudo nmap -6 2403:6200:8862:ea24::/120
Of the 256 hosts scanned, 4 were online. These are the same hosts that are on the 192.168.1.0/24 subnet.
In fact, if you dig a little deeper and take a closer look at IPv6, we will find out that very large subnets are allocated to clients, and so many addresses are needed due to the nature of IPv6 routing. It may turn out that the clients are gathered at the beginning of large ranges and it makes no sense to scan the entire large range of IPv6 addresses entirely – it is enough to break the scan targets into the same subnets that the ISP allocates to clients and scan only the very beginning of each such range. As a result, the scan time should decrease dramatically. IMHO, there is room for optimization in scanning IPv6 networks, but this requires an understanding of the topology of a particular network and a deep understanding of IPv6 and its routing.
So, to scan IPv6 addresses or ranges, add the -6 option to the nmap scan command and specify:
- full IPv6 address
- host name (if IPv6 is bound to it)
- CIDR notation can be used for subnets
Octet ranges for IPv6 are not yet supported.
Even if the IPv6 address is explicitly specified as the target, the -6 option must be specified, otherwise an error of the form:
2a0b:f4c0:16c:4::1 looks like an IPv6 target specification -- you have to use the -6 option.
All nmap options and capabilities are also supported for IPv6 addresses.
Online service ‘Scanning open IPv6 port addresses’: https://w-e-b.site/?act=nmap-ipv6
What is the difference between scanning IPv6 and IPv4? Do I need to additionally scan ports on IPv6?
IPv6 and IPv4 addresses of one remote host can be on the same network interface or on different ones. Even if both addresses are assigned to the same network interface, different ports can be opened for these addresses! For example, below I will show how to configure SSH to work only on the IPv6 protocol – in this case, if you restrict yourself to scanning the IPv4 protocol, then you will not even know about the existence of the SSH service on the target server! A similar statement is true for most other protocols and services, especially not intended for the general public: for example, a web server is unlikely to be configured to listen only to IPv6 address, since this restricts access to a large number of visitors, but “administrative” services to which it must only one person has access, or a small group of people, for example, SSH, Telnet, FTP, etc., may well be configured only to work on the IPv6 protocol.
Display IPv6 routes on the local system
To list IPv6 routes on Linux, run the command:
ip -6 route show
Or an abbreviated version of this command:
ip -6 ro
To show the default IPv6 route, run the command:
ip -6 route show default
For more information about routes, see the article ‘Setting up network routes: the choice of connection used for the Internet; simultaneous use of multiple connections for different purposes’.
How to view IPv6 settings
The above shows how to find out your IPv6 address and IPv6 routes, but in addition to these settings, the system has many other IPv6 options for fine-tuning and enabling or disabling certain IPv6 functions.
To view the current IPv6 settings on Linux, run the command:
sudo sysctl -a | grep ipv6
How to disable IPv6
To disable IPv6 on Linux, run the following commands:
sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1 sudo sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6=1
iptables for IPv6
Firewall configuration for the IPv6 protocol is performed by the ip6tables command.
IPv6 in Wireshark
Wireshark supports the IPv6 protocol and shows its packets by default. If you need to filter only IPv6 traffic, then use the display filter:
If you need only IP traffic, then use the filter:
Filtering ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol of the sixth version) in Wireshark is done by the filter:
How to filter ARP packets for IPv6 in Wireshark? For IPv6, ARP is not required, since its role is played by the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) using ICPM6.
To see packets that act as ARPs for IPv6, use a filter:
icmpv6.type == 133 or icmpv6.type == 134 or icmpv6.type == 135 or icmpv6.type == 136 or icmpv6.type == 137
See also the Wireshark Filters reference material.
IPv6 in tcpdump
tcpdump supports the IPv6 protocol and shows its packets by default.
It is worth noting that filtering by IPv6 range, for example:
sudo tcpdump net 2604:a880:800:c1::2ae:d000/64
May result in messages of the form:
tcpdump: non-network bits set in "2604:a880:800:c1::2ae:d000/64"
With other programs this problem usually does not occur, but tcpdump requires that the non-network bits are equal to zero. That is, the command with the following filter is correct for tcpdump:
sudo tcpdump net 2604:a880:800:c1::/64
Using IPv6 in SSH
When connecting to an SSH server, you can use the IPv6 address of the remote host, for example:
If you are connecting by the name of a host that has an IP and IPv6 address, then add the -6 option so that the IPv6 address is selected:
ssh -6 firstname.lastname@example.org
How to configure SSH to work with IPv6 only
The SSH server configuration is performed in the /etc/ssh/ sshd_config file.
The system can have several network interfaces with several IP addresses, by default sshd listens for them all, including IPv6 addresses:
ListenAddress 0.0.0.0 ListenAddress ::
If you remove the ListenAddress 0.0.0.0 entry, only IPv6 will be listened.
With the ListenAddress directive, you can also specify a specific IP that will be listened for while waiting for connections. And with the AddressFamily option you can choose to listen to all addresses, only IPv4 or only IPv6:
- any (by default, any addresses)
- inet (use only IPv4)
- inet6 (use only IPv6),
Why is it necessary to limit the listening addresses to IPv6 only?
Many automatic scanners by default only scan ports for IPv4 addresses, completely ignoring IPv6. There are still quite a lot of users, including hackers who do not have access to IPv6. If your ISP has IPv6 support, then switching to SSH with IPv6 protocol will significantly limit access to your SSH server for automatic scanners and drastically reduce the number of brute-force cracking attempts (password guessing).
How to connect to FTP on IPv6 in FileZilla
FileZilla supports IPv6 addresses that must be enclosed in square brackets.
The scheme with listening and connecting only over IPv6 should work, but this topic requires additional testing.
Man-in-the-middle attack on IPv6
Classic ARP spoofing does not work for the IPv6 protocol because it uses a different protocol. However, there are similar attacks by Neighbor Advertisement Spoofing, Last Hop Router.
IPv4 and IPv6 are separate protocols, so attacking one does not directly affect the other. However, the methods for spoofing NA and ARP are very similar. If you have the opportunity to do one, you probably could do another.
How to access an IPv6 network if my ISP does not support this protocol
Although Internet service providers support IPv6 not everywhere, you can easily rent VPS with IPv6. These VPS can be used over SSH or as a proxy for working with IPv6.
Examples of VPS with IPv6, where the system can be lifted with a few clicks:
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