SMB and Samba Security Audit Tools

Table of contents

1. SMB and network folders discovering. Shares and files enumeration

1.1 Samba utilities

1.2 SMB discovering via port scanning

1.3 enum4linux

1.4 nullinux

1.5 SMB Spider

1.6 acccheck

1.7 CredNinja

1.8 SMBMap

1.9 SPARTA

1.10 SMBCrunch

2. Man-in-the-middle attack on SMB. Relays

2.1 Responder

2.2 Inveigh

2.3 Intercepter-NG

2.4 Ettercap. Ettercap Plugins

2.5 MITMf

2.6 Net-Creds

3. Brute-force attack on Windows user credentials via SMB

3.1 patator

3.2 Hydra

3.3 Medusa

3.4 APT2

3.5 BruteSpray

4. SMB post-exploitation tools

4.1 CrackMapExec

4.2 keimpx

4.3 Pupy

5. Nmap scripts for gathering information and auditing SMB

6. Other programs


I composed a list of programs that somehow relate to security assessment and hacking of SMB protocol and Windows shares (network folders). A successful attack on SMB network folders can disclose Windows username and password.

I divided the picked up utilities into the following groups:

  1. SMB and network folders discovering. Shares and files enumeration
  2. Man-in-the-middle attack on SMB. Relays
  3. Brute-force attack on Windows user credentials via SMB
  4. SMB post-exploitation tools
  5. Nmap scripts for gathering information and auditing SMB

This is a fairly arbitrary division, since some programs can be placed in two groups at once, for example, the program looks for SMB balls on the network and tries different passwords.

1. SMB and network folders discovering. Shares and files enumeration

Samba utilities

Using the smbtree utility, you can detect Windows computers with shares:

sudo smbtree -N

Using the smbclient utility, you can view the network shared folders available on the computer:

sudo smbclient -L \\ИМЯ-КОМПЬЮТЕРА -N

In addition with smbclient, using the following command, you can connect to the network folder and perform normal file operations:

sudo smbclient //ИМЯ-КОМПЬЮТЕРА/Папка -N

The previous two commands use the -N option to log in without a password. If you want to connect to a folder that requires authentication, use the -U option after which specify the username, and remove the -N option.

SMB discovering via port scanning

SMB uses ports 445 and 139, so computers with network shares can be searched using Nmap with a command of the form:

sudo nmap NETWORK -p 139,445

For instance:

sudo nmap 192.168.0.0/24 -p 139,445

You can add the -oG <FILE> option to save the results to a file – by the way, we will need such a file with some of the following programs:

sudo nmap 192.168.0.0/24 -p 139,445 -oG portscan445.gnmap

enum4linux

The enum4linux program uses the tools from the Samba package to collect information using Windows shared folders.

num4linux is preinstalled on Kali Linux and BlackArch.

Usage:

enum4linux [options] ip

Options:

    -U        get userlist
    -M        get machine list*
    -S        get sharelist
    -P        get password policy information
    -G        get group and member list
    -d        be detailed, applies to -U and -S
    -u user   specify username to use (default "")  
    -p pass   specify password to use (default "")   

The following options from enum.exe aren't implemented: -L, -N, -D, -f

Additional options:
    -a        Do all simple enumeration (-U -S -G -P -r -o -n -i).
              This opion is enabled if you don't provide any other options.
    -h        Display this help message and exit
    -r        enumerate users via RID cycling
    -R range  RID ranges to enumerate (default: 500-550,1000-1050, implies -r)
    -K n      Keep searching RIDs until n consective RIDs don't correspond to
              a username.  Impies RID range ends at 999999. Useful 
	      against DCs.
    -l        Get some (limited) info via LDAP 389/TCP (for DCs only)
    -s file   brute force guessing for share names
    -k user   User(s) that exists on remote system (default: administrator,guest,krbtgt,domain admins,root,bin,none)
              Used to get sid with "lookupsid known_username"
    	      Use commas to try several users: "-k admin,user1,user2"
    -o        Get OS information
    -i        Get printer information
    -w wrkg   Specify workgroup manually (usually found automatically)
    -n        Do an nmblookup (similar to nbtstat)
    -v        Verbose.  Shows full commands being run (net, rpcclient, etc.)

Let’s consider the usage of the most interesting options. Firstly, this option is -a, which means to collect all possible information:

enum4linux -a 192.168.0.1

Some systems are configured to allow anonymous login, but do not allow login without a password – that is, null sessions are prohibited there. To work around this problem, it is enough to specify any username, you can omit the password. Please note that it is important to specify a username not existing on the system where the share is located, otherwise access will not be allowed due to incorrect credentials. The username can be specified with the -u option:

enum4linux -a -u anyuser 192.168.0.101

enum4linux program usually itself correctly defines the workgroup and you do not need to specify it manually. But I was faced with a situation when a host on Linux, where the network folder was configured using Samba, enum4linux could not determine the workgroup and generated a lot of errors. To force a workgroup to be specified, use the -w option:

enum4linux -a -w WORKGROUP 192.168.0.89

If you only want to get a list of shared folders, then specify the -S option instead of -a:

enum4linux -S -u anyuser 192.168.0.101

If you know the username and password to get access the network folder, then specify the username with the -u option, and the password with the -p option:

enum4linux -S -u ShareOverlord -p 1234 192.168.0.101

To get only a list of users, specify the -U option; for information about the operating system, use the -o option. Note that the -a option enables these options, and in total it activates the -U -S -G -P -r -o -n -i options.

enum4linux -U -o -w WORKGROUP 192.168.0.89

nullinux

Nullinux, using SMB, can list OS information, domain information, network shares, directories, and users. If the username and password are not specified in the command line arguments, then an anonymous login or null session is tried. Nullinux is a wrapper for Samba tools (smbclient and rpcclient) to list hosts using various techniques.

nullinux is preinstalled on BlackArch. To install nullinux on Kali Linux, run the following commands:

sudo apt install python3-pip
git clone https://github.com/m8r0wn/nullinux
cd nullinux
sudo bash setup.sh
nullinux -h

Usage:

nullinux TARGET [OPTIONS]

Options:

positional arguments:
  target                Target server

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v                    Verbose output

Authentication:
  -u USERNAME, -U USERNAME
                        Username
  -p PASSWORD, -P PASSWORD
                        Password

Enumeration:
  -shares               Enumerate shares only
  -users                Enumerate users only
  -q, -quick            Fast user enumeration
  -r, -rid              Perform RID cycling only
  -range RID_RANGE      Set Custom RID cycling range (Default: '500-550')
  -T MAX_THREADS        Max threads for RID cycling (Default: 15)

By default, nullinux will list users and shared folders for all specified hosts. Using the command line arguments, you can configure the enumeration process.

Perform an anonymous connection, a null session for the host (192.168.0.1) with SMB and get information, including network folders and users:

nullinux 192.168.0.1

To gather information, connect to a host with a shared folder (192.168.0.101) using the known username (-U ShareOverlord) and password (-P 1234):

nullinux 192.168.0.101 -U ShareOverlord -P 1234

Get a list of shares and their contents (option -shares) for a list of hosts (192.168.0.89,192.168.0.1,192.168.0.101) using a username that does not exist on them (option -p anyuser) for anonymous login to hosts where it is impossible to log in without username:

nullinux 192.168.0.89,192.168.0.1,192.168.0.101 -shares -p anyuser

Let's look at a few more examples of using nullinux, which are described by the author of this program on wiki page.

Enumerate Multiple Hosts at Once

nullinux provides several options for enumerating users and shares from multiple hosts. Although this can be completed with other tools using a bash loop or Interlace, nullinux simplifies this process.

x=0;until [ $x -eq "3" ]; do enum4linux 192.168.1.$x; ((x++)); done

OR

nullinux 192.168.1.1,192.168.1.7

By the way, Interlace manual ‘How to speed up the scanning of numerous web sites with Interlace’.

Creates a nullinux_users.txt File

By using the command line argument “-users”, nullinux will attempt to enumerate users through all available options and display the results on screen. nullinux will compile all users collected during enumeration into a single .txt file, free of duplicates. This nullinux_users.txt file can then be used for password spraying or other internal attacks.

Nullinux can also be set to use non-invasive or lengthy techniques to enumerate users through the "-quick" option. This will perform a quick enumeration of users leaving out brute force options such as known usernames, rid cycling, and enumerating the LSA.

Multi-Threaded RID Cycling

Nullinux will perform RID cycling during the user enumeration process, or as a stand-alone technique, on the target server. This is a multi-threaded process to decrease enumeration time and add functionality to the tool.

nullinux -users 10.0.1.1
nullinux -rid -range 500-600 10.0.1.1

SMB Spider

The smbspider program displays the contents of Windows shares. The program works very quickly and, unlike other tools, it does not have problems when entering folders that do not require a password, but require any username. The program can search for files by certain phrases – this is very useful if a large number of shares (network folders) are found and you need to find a file with sensitive data on them, for example, passwords.txt files.

SMB Spider is installed on BlackArch, on Kali Linux it can be installed with the following commands:

sudo apt install python-pip python-netaddr smbclient cifs-utils ldb-tools libbsd-dev libwbclient-dev libtalloc2 libtdb-dev libtevent-dev libsmbclient-dev
sudo pip2 install pysmb pysmbc
git clone https://github.com/T-S-A/smbspider
cd smbspider/
python2 ./smbspider.py -h

Usage:

smbspider [-h] -ip IPADDRESS -s SHARE [-f SUBFOLDER] [-pa PATTERN]
                 [-pf PATTERNFILE] [-u USER] [-p PWD] [-d DOMAIN]
                 [-r RECURSIVE] [-t THREADS]

Optional arguments:

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -ip IPADDRESS, --ipaddress IPADDRESS
                        IP Address, IP/CIDR, IP Address File
  -s SHARE, --share SHARE
                        SMB share to spider
  -f SUBFOLDER, --subfolder SUBFOLDER
                        SMB subfolder to spider
  -pa PATTERN, --pattern PATTERN
                        Keyword to search for, i.e., password
  -pf PATTERNFILE, --patternfile PATTERNFILE
                        File of keywords to search for, i.e., password
  -u USER, --user USER  SMB user to connect with
  -p PWD, --pwd PWD     SMB password to connect with
  -d DOMAIN, --domain DOMAIN
                        SMB domain to connect with
  -r RECURSIVE, --recursive RECURSIVE
                        Spider subfolders. Set value for depth.
  -t THREADS, --threads THREADS
                        Number of threads

To get the contents of a network folder, specify the -s option with the name of the folder, and the host must be specified after the -ip option:

smbspider -ip 192.168.0.101 -s Share

In the previous example, a null session will be used, if you know the username and password, specify the username after the -u option and the password after -p:

smbspider -ip 192.168.0.101 -s ShareRestricted -u ShareOverlord -p 1234

acccheck

acccheck can verify the credentials of network folders. The program supports working with lists of usernames and passwords, that is, it can be used for brute-force. Also, the program can work with a list of hosts, but it runs too long during my tests.

Like some other tools, this is wrap for ‘smbclient’ binary.

The acccheck program is available on Kali Linux; it can be installed on any other distribution using the following commands:

wget https://labs.portcullis.co.uk/download/acccheck-0-2-1.tar.gz
tar xf acccheck-0-2-1.tar.gz
rm acccheck-0-2-1.tar.gz
cd acccheck-0-2-1/
./acccheck.pl -h

Usage:

acccheck [options]

Mandatory is one of the following options:

 -t [single host IP address]
 -T [file containing target ip address(es)]

Another options:

 -p [single password]
 -P [file containing passwords]
 -u [single user]
 -U [file containing usernames]
 -v [verbose mode]

This program can be used both for checking credentials on one host, and for checking many hosts whether the username and password for accessing the network folders are suitable for them.

Example of checking credentials on a single host:

./acccheck.pl -t 192.168.0.101 -u ShareOverlord -p 1234

To mass check if the existing SMB credentials are suitable for some host on the network, first create a file with a list of hosts:

echo -e 192.168.0.{0..255}"\n" | sed 's/ //' > ~/test/hosts.txt

And the next command starts scanning the network shares and brute-force credentials for the entire local network:

./acccheck.pl -T ~/test/hosts.txt -U ~/test/logins.txt -P ~/test/passwords.txt

In Kali Linux, use the acccehck executable name instead of ./acccheck.pl, for example:

acccehck -t 192.168.0.101 -U logins.txt -P passwords.txt

If End of Scan is displayed, for example:

./acccheck.pl -t 192.168.0.101 -u ShareOverlord -p 12345
 
End of Scan

So a computer with SMB was found, but valid credentials were not found.

If the credentials is valid, then the output is approximately the following:

./acccheck.pl -t 192.168.0.101 -u ShareOverlord -p 1234

        SUCCESS.... connected to 192.168.0.101 with username:'ShareOverlord' and password:'1234'

End of Scan

Credninja

[COMING SOON]

SMBMap

SMBMap allows users to enumerate samba share drives across an entire domain. List share drives, drive permissions, share contents, upload/download functionality, file name auto-download pattern matching, and even execute remote commands. This tool was designed with pen testing in mind, and is intended to simplify searching for potentially sensitive data across large networks.

SMBMap is preinstalled on Kali Linux and BlackArch.

Usage:

smbmap [-h] (-H HOST | --host-file FILE) [-u USERNAME] [-p PASSWORD] [-s SHARE] [-d DOMAIN] [-P PORT] [-v] [-x COMMAND] [--mode CMDMODE] [-L | -R [PATH] | -r [PATH]]
              [-A PATTERN | -g] [--dir-only] [-q] [--depth DEPTH] [-F PATTERN] [--search-path PATH] [--download PATH] [--upload SRC DST] [--delete PATH TO FILE] [--skip]

Options:

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit

Main arguments:
  -H HOST               IP of host
  --host-file FILE      File containing a list of hosts
  -u USERNAME           Username, if omitted null session assumed
  -p PASSWORD           Password or NTLM hash
  -s SHARE              Specify a share (default C$), ex 'C$'
  -d DOMAIN             Domain name (default WORKGROUP)
  -P PORT               SMB port (default 445)
  -v                    Return the OS version of the remote host

Command Execution:
  Options for executing commands on the specified host

  -x COMMAND            Execute a command ex. 'ipconfig /all'
  --mode CMDMODE        Set the execution method, wmi or psexec, default wmi

Shard drive Search:
  Options for searching/enumerating the share of the specified host(s)

  -L                    List all drives on the specified host
  -R [PATH]             Recursively list dirs, and files (no share\path lists ALL shares), ex. 'C$\Finance'
  -r [PATH]             List contents of directory, default is to list root of all shares, ex. -r 'C$\Documents and Settings\Administrator\Documents'
  -A PATTERN            Define a file name pattern (regex) that auto downloads a file on a match (requires -R or -r), not case sensitive, ex '(web|global).(asax|config)'
  -g                    Make the output grep friendly, used with -r or -R (otherwise it outputs nothing)
  --dir-only            List only directories, ommit files.
  -q                    Quiet verbose output. Only shows shares you have READ or WRITE on, and suppresses file listing when performing a search (-A).
  --depth DEPTH         Traverse a directory tree to a specific depth

File Content Search:
  Options for searching the content of files

  -F PATTERN            File content search, -F '[Pp]assword' (requires admin access to execute commands, and PowerShell on victim host)
  --search-path PATH    Specify drive/path to search (used with -F, default C:\Users), ex 'D:\HR\'

Filesystem interaction:
  Options for interacting with the specified host's filesystem

  --download PATH       Download a file from the remote system, ex.'C$\temp\passwords.txt'
  --upload SRC DST      Upload a file to the remote system ex. '/tmp/payload.exe C$\temp\payload.exe'
  --delete PATH TO FILE
                        Delete a remote file, ex. 'C$\temp\msf.exe'
  --skip                Skip delete file confirmation prompt

SMBMap usage example:

smbmap -H 192.168.0.101 -u ShareOverlord -p 1234

If you specify the -v option, information about the host operating system with a network folder will be displayed:

smbmap -H 192.168.0.101 -u ShareOverlord -p 1234 -v

SPARTA

SPARTA is a Python-based graphical user interface (GUI) application that simplifies penetration testing of network infrastructure, assisting the penetration tester in the scanning and enumeration phase. It allows you to save time for the tester thanks to a simple graphical interface and the output of the received information in a readable form. The less time is spent on typing commands and tuning instruments, the more time can be spent focusing on analyzing the results.

Among others features, the program perform security auditing of SMB and brute-force SMB.

SMBCrunch

SMBCrunch is 3 tools that work together to gather information about Windows file shares (network folders). Tool Names:

  • SMBHunt – searches for computers with network folders and lists shares
  • SMBList – composes file lists of specified network folders based on the file generated by SMBHunt
  • SMBGrab – grabs files from network folders based on the file generated by the SMBList program. Searching and filtering data can be done with grep.

These scripts can be used separately, but it is more convenient to use them one after another, transferring the generated files from one program to another.

SMBCrunch is preinstalled on BlackArch, to install on Kali Linux run:

git clone https://github.com/Raikia/SMBCrunch
cd SMBCrunch/
./SMBHunt.pl -h

There are two required options for SMBHunt.pl. The first is -i, after which you need to specify either the host, or the file with the list of hosts, or the file with the Nmap scan results. The second required option is -a, after it you must specify either a file with user credentials, or one pair of credentials. The username and password must be divided by a colon; if they are specified in the file, then one pair per line. After the -o option, you can specify a file to save data:

An example of connecting to a specific host:

./SMBHunt.pl -a 'Alexey:qweqwe123' -i 192.168.0.101 -o shares_found.txt

And this is an example of preliminary scanning and gathering information from all hosts on which the open port 445 is found:

sudo nmap 192.168.0.0/24 -p 139,445 -oG portscan445.gnmap
./SMBHunt.pl -a 'Alexey:qweqwe123' -i portscan445.gnmap -o shares_found.txt

The program SMBList.pl also has two required options. After the -c option, you need to specify a username and password, or a file with credentials. After the -s option, specify the file that was generated by the previous program. After the -o option, you can specify the name of the directory where the compiled lists of files on network folders will be saved:

./SMBList.pl -c 'Alexey:qweqwe123' -s shares_found.txt -o share_listing -m 150

A complete list of all files in network folders is collected in the file share_listing/ALL_COMBINED_RESULTS.txt, and separate files for each network folder are compiled.

The SMBGrab.pl script accepts a list of files not through an option, but through standard input. Thanks to this approach, grep can filter the files you need to download.

In the following example, only lines containing 'password.txt' will be found in the file share_listing/ALL_COMBINED_RESULTS.txt, these lines will be piped to the SMBGrab.pl program and it will save them to the savedfiles directory:

grep -i 'password.txt' share_listing/ALL_COMBINED_RESULTS.txt | ./SMBGrab.pl -s savedfiles

Please note that by default, SMBGrab.pl adds information about this file (download, creation timestamps, etc.) to each file. And it adds to any files – including binary ones. To keep the files in their original form, specify the -n option. An example of a command in which .exe files are downloaded and saved in their original form:

grep -i '[.]exe' share_listing/ALL_COMBINED_RESULTS.txt | ./SMBGrab.pl -s savedfiles -n

2. Man-in-the-middle attack on SMB. Relays

Responder

Responder is a tool for performing a man-in-the-middle attack against authentication methods in Windows. This program includes the LLMNR, NBT-NS and MDNS poisoner to redirect requests and authentication hashes traffic. The program also includes HTTP/SMB/MSSQL/FTP/LDAP authentication rogue servers that support authentication methods such as NTLMv1/NTLMv2/LMv2, Extended Security NTLMSSP and basic HTTP authentication, for which the Responder acts as a relay.

That is, the Responder intercepts usernames and authentication hashes on the network with Windows computers. After breaking the hash, the user password is revealed.

To launch an attack, you need to run a command of the form:

sudo responder -I INTERFACE -rPvf

Where instead of the word INTERFACE you need to specify the name of the network interface in your system on which you want to carry out the attack.

For more details, as well as a way to crack authentication hashes, see the article “Windows Network Authentication Hacking”.

Inveigh

[COMING SOON…]

Intercepter-ng

Intercepter-NG is a multifunctional network toolkit for IT professionals of various types. The main goal is to restore interesting data from the network stream and perform various kinds of man-in-the-middle attacks (MiTM). In addition, the program allows you to detect ARP spoofing (can be used to detect MiTM), identify and exploit some types of vulnerabilities, brute-force login credentials for network services. The program can work both with live traffic flow and analyze files with captured traffic to detect files and credentials.

SMB related features:

  • Reconstructing files from SMB
  • SMB relay
  • SMB Hijack (interception)

Ettercap. Ettercap Plugins

Ettercap is a comprehensive man-in-the-middle (MiTM) attack kit. It is able to sniff live connections, filter on the fly the contents of the transmitted data and many other tricks. It supports active and passive tampering of many protocols and includes many functions for network and host analysis.

Among the Ettercap plugins, there are two plugins aimed at attacking the SMB protocol.

smb_clear

It forces the client to send smb password in clear text distorting protocol negotiations. You must be in the middle of the connection to use it successfully. It hooks the smb dissector, so you will keep it active. If you use it against a Windows client, then the result is unlikely to be successful. Try it against *nix smbclient.

smb_down

It forces the client not to use NTLM2 password exchange during smb authentication. Thus, hashes are obtained that can easily be cracked in LC4. You must be in the middle of the connection to use it successfully. It hooks the smb dissector, so you will keep it active.

MITMf

MITMf is a framework for Man-In-The-Middle attacks. This tool is based on sergio-proxy and is an attempt to revive and update this project.

SMB related modules:

SMBTrap : Exploits the 'SMB Trap' vulnerability on a connected client
SMBAuth : Invokes an SMB authentication prompt

Netcreds

Net-Creds carefully sniffs passwords and hashes from the interface or from the pcap file. Combines fragmented packets and does not rely on ports to identify the service. It supports SMB protocol.

3. Brute-force attack on Windows user credentials via SMB

patator

The patator program is designed for brute-force credentials and is one of the most flexible to configure.

For online brute-force login and user password to access the network shared folder (and therefore the Windows user credentials), run a command of the form:

./patator.py smb_login host=192.168.0.101 user=FILE0 password=FILE1 0=/root/logins.txt 1=/root/passwords.txt -x ignore:fgrep='STATUS_LOGON_FAILURE'

In this command:

  • ./patator.py is the name of the executable file, depending on the installation method it may be patator
  • smb_login is SMB brute force module
  • host=192.168.0.101 is IP address of the computer with SMB. You can specify a file with hosts (more precisely, the file placeholder number)
  • user=FILE0 is username for brute force. Instead of a name, a placeholder with a pointer to file number 0
  • password=FILE1 is password for brute force. Instead of a single password, a placeholder is written with a pointer to the file number 1
  • 0=/root/logins.txt is path to file number 0
  • 1=/root/passwords.txt is path to file number 1
  • -x ignore:fgrep='STATUS_LOGON_FAILURE' means do not display attempts, in response to which the line STATUS_LOGON_FAILURE was received

Result:

That is, two pairs of credentials were found:

  • ShareOverlord:1234
  • Alexey:qweqwe123

Obtained computer name and version of Windows:

  • \HACKWARE-MIAL (Windows 10.0 Build 18362)

Another account was found for which the message STATUS_ACCOUNT_RESTRICTION was received:

  • mial:

The message said that there are account restrictions for the mial user. The reason is that the username and password are correct (empty password), but users without a password are not allowed on this computer.

Hydra

The hydra program supports a huge number of services, thanks to its speed and reliability, it has earned well-deserved appreciation among penetration testers.

Example command to start the brute force SMB:

hydra smb://192.168.0.101 -L /root/logins.txt -P /root/passwords.txt

To say true, I did not succeed due to an error:

[ERROR] invalid reply from target smb://192.168.0.101:445/

Medusa

Medusa is a fast, parallel, and modular login brute-forcer. The goal is to support as many services on which remote authentication as possible.

Example command launch:

medusa -M smbnt -h 192.168.0.101 -U /root/logins.txt -P /root/passwords.txt

I got an error:

ERROR: SMB Protocol Negotiation Failed with host: 192.168.0.101

The reason for it, most likely, is that on the host where I want to brute-force the username and password of Windows users, support for the SMB 1 protocol is disabled. In Medusa, you can specify the authentication method:

medusa -M smbnt -h 192.168.0.101 -U /root/logins.txt -P /root/passwords.txt -m AUTH:NTLMv2

In this case, another error occurs:

FATAL: NTLMv2 support currently disabled. The default authentication mode of LMv2 should work in all cases that NTLMv2 is required.

The essence of the message is that NTLMv2 is disabled, and LMv2 should be enough for us.

APT2

APT2 is a suite of tools for automated penetration testing.

Modules for SMB security audit:

+--------------------------------+--------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Module                         | Type   | Safe | Description                                                                 |
+--------------------------------+--------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| exploit_hydrasmbpassword       | action | 2    | Attempt to bruteforce SMB passwords                                         |
| scan_msf_smbuserenum           | action | 5    | Get List of Users From SMB                                                  |
| scan_msf_snmpenumshares        | action | 5    | Enumerate SMB Shares via LanManager OID Values                              |
| scan_nmap_smbshares            | action | 5    | NMap SMB Share Scan                                                         |
| scan_nmap_smbsigning           | action | 5    | NMap SMB-Signing Scan                                                       |
| scan_rpcclient_userenum        | action | 5    | Get List of Users From SMB                                                  |
| scan_searchsmbshare            | action | 4    | Search files on SMB Shares                                                  |
| scan_smbclient_nullsession     | action | 5    | Test for NULL Session                                                       |
+--------------------------------+--------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

BruteSpray

BruteSpray accepts the results of nmap GNMAP/XML scans and, using Medusa, automatically brute-force services using dictionaries with standard logins and passwords. BruteSpray can even find non-standard ports using the -sV option inside Nmap.

[COMING SOON…]

4. SMB post-exploitation tools

CrackMapExec

CrackMapExec is an all-in-one tool for testing the Windows/Active Directory environment. It is inspired/based on previous developments, including, as a submodule, it includes the PowerSploit repository.

The program can enumerate logged-in users and index SMB shared folders, perform psexec-style attacks, automatic Mimikatz/Shellcode/DLL injections into memory using Powershell, dumping NTDS.dit and more!

An example of listing shared folders:

crackmapexec smb 192.168.0.101 -u Alexey -p qweqwe123 --shares

keimpx

It can be used to quickly check for valid credentials across a network over SMB. Credentials can be:

  • Combination of user / plain-text password.
  • Combination of user / NTLM hash.
  • Combination of user / NTLM logon session token.

If any valid credentials are discovered across the network after its attack phase, the user is asked to choose which host to connect to and which valid credentials to use. They will then be provided with an interactive SMB shell where the user can:

  • Spawn an interactive command prompt.
  • Navigate through the remote SMB shares: list, upload, download files, create, remove files, etc.
  • Deploy and undeploy their own services, for instance, a backdoor listening on a TCP port for incoming connections.
  • List users details, domains and password policy.

Scan the subnet (-t 192.168.0.0/24) by checking the validity of the username (-U Alexey) and password (-P qweqwe123) for all hosts with shares:

python3 ./keimpx.py -t 192.168.0.0/24 -U Alexey -P qweqwe123

Connect to the remote host (-t 192.168.0.101) using the username (-U Alexey) and password (-P qweqwe123):

python3 ./keimpx.py -t 192.168.0.101 -U Alexey -P qweqwe123

As a result, the specified credentials will be checked for correctness. If they are correct, you will be prompted to connect and open an interactive shell to interact with the remote system.

Pupy

Pupy is an open source tool for remote administration and subsequent operation (post-exploitation), working on various platforms (Windows, Linux, OSX, Android).

SMB Modules:

CATEGORY  NAME               HELP     
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
admin     shares             List Local And Remote Shared Folder And Permission                    
admin     smbspider          Walk Through A Smb Directory And Recursively Search A String Into Files
admin     smb                Copy Files Via Smb Protocol                                         
admin     psexec             Launch Remote Commands Using Smbexec Or Wmiexec           

5. Nmap scripts for gathering information and auditing SMB

There are quite a few Nmap scripts for SMB analysis or information gathering. Usually they are quite specific (for example, checking for a specific vulnerability or for infection with a specific backdoor) and/or outdated. Nevertheless, some scripts provide unique information, for example, versions of SMB dialects supported by a computer with network folders. Another reason to get acquainted with NSE (Nmap scripts) is that among real servers there are quite old ones.

The script name is specified after the --script option. Moreover, you can engage all SMB scripts, because the names support wildcards:

sudo nmap --script "smb-*" HOST

But the completion of the previous command never happened for me… Therefore, I specify one script at a time.

Each time the script is run, Nmap scans the ports: unless otherwise specified by the options, the 1000 most common ports are checked. This can be time consuming, especially when sequentially checking with several scripts. Without port scanning scripts will not work, that is, you cannot specify the -sn option. But the scanning time can be reduced if you specify only one port – TCP port 445, which is bind by SMB.

Examples of gathering information about SMB using Nmap scripts.

I tested on 4 different systems: two Windows 10 computers with different settings (with permission to enter with and without password; with SMB 1 support and without), one Linux system with Samba and one router with Samba. Only a few scripts worked for me – they are all listed below. However, you may be more fortunate and find older machines where scripts come in handy, so the following is a complete table of Nmap scripts related to SMB.

smb-enum-shares. Listing network folders on a host:

sudo nmap -p 445 --script smb-enum-shares 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.49 192.168.0.89

smb-protocols. Getting information about supported protocols:

sudo nmap -p 445 --script smb-protocols 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.49 192.168.0.89

smb2-capabilities. Checking the capabilities of the SMB 2 protocol:

sudo nmap -p 445 --script smb2-capabilities 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.49 192.168.0.89

smb2-security-mode. Security Mode Settings:

sudo nmap -p 445 --script smb2-security-mode 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.49 192.168.0.89

smb2-time. Getting time via SMB:

sudo nmap -p 445 --script smb2-time 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.49 192.168.0.89

smb-os-discovery. Operating System Information:

sudo nmap -p 445 --script smb-os-discovery 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.49 192.168.0.89

Arguments can be passed to some scripts (see the details for each specific script), the --script-args option is used for this, for example: --script-args='smbusername=Alexey,smbpassword=qweqwe123'

Below is a table with all Nmap scripts (NSE) for checking or gathering information about SMB.

Script Name Description
smb-brute

Attempts to guess username/password combinations over SMB, storing discovered combinations for use in other scripts. Every attempt will be made to get a valid list of users and to verify each username before actually using them. When a username is discovered, besides being printed, it is also saved in the Nmap registry so other Nmap scripts can use it. That means that if you're going to run smb-brute.nse, you should run other smb scripts you want. This checks passwords in a case-insensitive way, determining case after a password is found, for Windows versions before Vista.

smb-double-pulsar-backdoor

Checks if the target machine is running the Double Pulsar SMB backdoor.

smb-enum-domains

Attempts to enumerate domains on a system, along with their policies. This generally requires credentials, except against Windows 2000. In addition to the actual domain, the "Builtin" domain is generally displayed. Windows returns this in the list of domains, but its policies don't appear to be used anywhere.

smb-enum-groups

Obtains a list of groups from the remote Windows system, as well as a list of the group's users. This works similarly to enum.exe with the /G switch.

smb-enum-processes

Pulls a list of processes from the remote server over SMB. This will determine all running processes, their process IDs, and their parent processes. It is done by querying the remote registry service, which is disabled by default on Vista; on all other Windows versions, it requires Administrator privileges.

smb-enum-services

Retrieves the list of services running on a remote Windows system. Each service attribute contains service name, display name and service status of each service.

smb-enum-sessions

Enumerates the users logged into a system either locally or through an SMB share. The local users can be logged on either physically on the machine, or through a terminal services session. Connections to a SMB share are, for example, people connected to fileshares or making RPC calls. Nmap's connection will also show up, and is generally identified by the one that connected "0 seconds ago".

smb-enum-shares

Attempts to list shares using the srvsvc.NetShareEnumAll MSRPC function and retrieve more information about them using srvsvc.NetShareGetInfo. If access to those functions is denied, a list of common share names are checked.

smb-enum-users

Attempts to enumerate the users on a remote Windows system, with as much information as possible, through two different techniques (both over MSRPC, which uses port 445 or 139; see smb.lua). The goal of this script is to discover all user accounts that exist on a remote system. This can be helpful for administration, by seeing who has an account on a server, or for penetration testing or network footprinting, by determining which accounts exist on a system.

smb-flood

Exhausts a remote SMB server's connection limit by by opening as many connections as we can. Most implementations of SMB have a hard global limit of 11 connections for user accounts and 10 connections for anonymous. Once that limit is reached, further connections are denied. This script exploits that limit by taking up all the connections and holding them.

smb-ls

Attempts to retrieve useful information about files shared on SMB volumes. The output is intended to resemble the output of the UNIX ls command.

smb-mbenum

Queries information managed by the Windows Master Browser.

smb-os-discovery

Attempts to determine the operating system, computer name, domain, workgroup, and current time over the SMB protocol (ports 445 or 139). This is done by starting a session with the anonymous account (or with a proper user account, if one is given; it likely doesn't make a difference); in response to a session starting, the server will send back all this information.

smb-print-text

Attempts to print text on a shared printer by calling Print Spooler Service RPC functions.

smb-protocols

Attempts to list the supported protocols and dialects of a SMB server.

smb-psexec

Implements remote process execution similar to the Sysinternals' psexec tool, allowing a user to run a series of programs on a remote machine and read the output. This is great for gathering information about servers, running the same tool on a range of system, or even installing a backdoor on a collection of computers.

smb-security-mode

Returns information about the SMB security level determined by SMB.

smb-server-stats

Attempts to grab the server's statistics over SMB and MSRPC, which uses TCP ports 445 or 139.

smb-system-info

Pulls back information about the remote system from the registry. Getting all of the information requires an administrative account, although a user account will still get a lot of it. Guest probably won't get any, nor will anonymous. This goes for all operating systems, including Windows 2000.

smb-vuln-conficker

Detects Microsoft Windows systems infected by the Conficker worm. This check is dangerous and it may crash systems.

smb-vuln-cve-2017-7494

Checks if target machines are vulnerable to the arbitrary shared library load vulnerability CVE-2017-7494.

smb-vuln-cve2009-3103

Detects Microsoft Windows systems vulnerable to denial of service (CVE-2009-3103). This script will crash the service if it is vulnerable.

smb-vuln-ms06-025

Detects Microsoft Windows systems with Ras RPC service vulnerable to MS06-025.

smb-vuln-ms07-029

Detects Microsoft Windows systems with Dns Server RPC vulnerable to MS07-029.

smb-vuln-ms08-067

Detects Microsoft Windows systems vulnerable to the remote code execution vulnerability known as MS08-067. This check is dangerous and it may crash systems.

smb-vuln-ms10-054

Tests whether target machines are vulnerable to the ms10-054 SMB remote memory corruption vulnerability.

smb-vuln-ms10-061

Tests whether target machines are vulnerable to ms10-061 Printer Spooler impersonation vulnerability.

smb-vuln-ms17-010

Attempts to detect if a Microsoft SMBv1 server is vulnerable to a remote code execution vulnerability (ms17-010, a.k.a. EternalBlue). The vulnerability is actively exploited by WannaCry and Petya ransomware and other malware.

smb-vuln-regsvc-dos

Checks if a Microsoft Windows 2000 system is vulnerable to a crash in regsvc caused by a null pointer dereference. This check will crash the service if it is vulnerable and requires a guest account or higher to work.

smb-vuln-webexec

A critical remote code execution vulnerability exists in WebExService (WebExec).

smb-webexec-exploit

Attempts to run a command via WebExService, using the WebExec vulnerability. Given a Windows account (local or domain), this will start an arbitrary executable with SYSTEM privileges over the SMB protocol.

smb2-capabilities

Attempts to list the supported capabilities in a SMBv2 server for each enabled dialect.

smb2-security-mode

Determines the message signing configuration in SMBv2 servers for all supported dialects.

smb2-time

Attempts to obtain the current system date and the start date of a SMB2 server.

smb2-vuln-uptime

Attempts to detect missing patches in Windows systems by checking the uptime returned during the SMB2 protocol negotiation.

6. Other programs

Here are collected programs that either did not work during my testing, or were not tested for other reasons.

snarf-mitm

Man-in-the-middle attack engine on SMB/relay.

samba-testsuite

Samba Testing Toolkit

smb-nat

Netbios Audit Tool

smbexec

Psexec style fast attack with samba tools.

smbrelay

Toolkit for attacking SMB/HTTP on an SMB relay.

This is a program for Windows. Website Address: http://www.tarasco.org/security/smbrelay/

NetworkOpenedFiles

NetworkOpenedFiles is a simple tool for Windows that displays the list of all files that are currently opened by other computers on your network. For every opened filename, the following information is displayed: Filename, user name, computer name (On Windows 7/2008 or later), Permissions information (Read/Write/Create), locks count, file owner, file size, file attributes, and more…

Web site: http://www.nirsoft.net/utils/network_opened_files.html

This is a program from NirSoft, that is, it is working. But I did not check it, because the functionality is not very interesting.

smbnetfs

A small C program that mounts Microsoft network neighborhood in one directory.

pdgmail

A dictionary-based password attack tool that targets Windows authentication using the SMB protocol.

sambascan

Allows you to search for a network or a number of hosts network folders SMB. It will also list the contents of the public balloon to be found.

smbbf

Brute-force password smb.

smb4k

Samba Advanced Network Folder Browser (SMB).

smbc

samba-commander is a samba web browser with a curses interface.

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